Special Papers

Commissioned papers, mainly by international experts and presented at EEPSEA Biannual Workshops.

The purpose of cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is to guide investment decisions. If the costs of an investment exceed the benefits it produces, the investment should not be undertaken. Environmental economics extends conventional CBA to include environmental costs & benefits. In order to do so, these costs and benefits need to…
Glossary of English-Vietnamese Terms in Environmental Economics   | Download |
Both the System of Integrated Environment and Economic Accounting (SEEA) and the Environmental and Natural Resources Accounting Project (ENRAP) are efforts to expand conventional national economic accounts in order to better reflect interactions between the market economy and the natural environment. In order to maintain a close relationship to the…
This paper examines the views raised and discussed by Glover and Bromley against a case in the Philippines in which research had, in fact, affected policy. The Environment and Natural Resource Accounting Project (ENRAP) was a research endeavor under the aegis of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).…

Using Choice Experiments for Non-Market Valuation

by Francisco Alpizar, Fredrik Carlsson, Peter Martinsson
This paper provides the latest research developments in the method of choice experiments applied to valuation of non-market goods. Choice experiments, along with the, by now, well-known contingent valuation method, are very important tools for valuing non-market goods and the results are used in both cost-benefit analyses and litigations related…
Many research reports contain interesting data, but fail to draw policy-relevant conclusions from them, or to present their conclusions in a compelling fashion.  Some of the most common shortcomings are: drawing implications that are not based on the data.  (Sometimes, the recommendations could have been written before the project was…
Preparing a proposal for a research project is a skill we tend to take for granted, although it is rarely taught in university. Written guides are limited to formats and application forms which briefly list the information requirements of a funding agency, but rarely explain why it important to provide…
Forest cover in Viet Nam decreased by more than 35% since the 1950s. As much as 75% of the forest cover has been removed in some northern areas.  Despite government sponsored reforestation programs, deforestation continues, especially when property rights to the forest are not secure and where the inhabitants are…

Help on Effective Writing

by Alan Barker, Firoze Manji
In Writing for Change, you will learn the core skills of effective writing, how to write for scientific publication, and how to write for advocacy. Writing for Change will enhance your capacity to write in ways that promote action from your target audience. It is full of practical exercises and…
Increased use of economic analyses in the environment, transport, energy, health and cultural sectors has increased the demand for information on the economic value of environmental and other non-market goods by decisionmakers. Due to limited time and resources when decisions have to be made, new environmental valuation studies often cannot…
This paper discusses three main reasons why so many of the contingent valuation studies conducted in developing countries are so bad. First, the contingent valuation surveys themselves are often poorly administered and executed. Second, contingent valuation scenarios are often very poorly crafted. Third, few CV studies conducted in developing countries…
The goal of a contingent valuation (CV) researcher is to gauge the attitudes and perceptions of a study population and to listen carefully to respondents' voices. The messages from the respondents to the researcher are filtered through the enumerators. The team of enumerators can thus be viewed as an instruments…
The increasing integration of Asian economies has fueled a period of sustained economic growth for the region as a whole relative to the rest of the world, and for individual Asian economies. This growth has been supported by three phenomena: global demand growth; elastic supplies of labor and other inputs,…

The Wealth of Nature: Valuing Ecosystem Services

by A. Myrick Freeman III, William D. Shipman
In May, 2009, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a report titled “Valuing the Protection of Ecological Systems and Services” (U.S. EPA, 2009). I was a member of the EPA Science Advisory Board’s Committee on Valuing the Protection of Ecological Systems and Services (C-VPESS) that produced the Report.…
Researchers using stated preference (SP) techniques have increasingly come to rely on what we call ―hypothetical baselines.‖ By the term ―hypothetical baseline,‖ we mean that respondents are provided with a description of a current state or baseline, but that this baseline is intentionally not the actual state of environmental quality,…
This paper attempts to respond to some of the questions that has confronted to us with:  How can we improve communications between researchers and policymakers? What can be done to increase the utilization of research results? And how can research meet short term needs without compromising its role in the…

ValuAsia: Benefits Transfer for Southeast Asia

by Romel R. Saplaco & Herminia A. Francisco
With the heightening awareness that environmental quality is a scarce resource, the need to properly incorporate the environment in policy and decision making is becoming more relevant. This situation emphasizes the importance of environmental valuation in policy and decision making. The ValuAsia Archive encourages less developed and developing countries in…
The management of fisheries is the classic natural resource problem. It captures all the beauties of using resource economic concepts and principles to explain the cause of the 'fishery problem' around the world. At the same time the 'fishery problem' presents the frustrations and despair of designing policies to manage…
The purpose of the following paper is to provide an overview of an economic analysis of soil erosion, concentrating particularly on explaining the farm-level economics of soil erosion and discussing with examples the appropriate methodology for measuring on and off-site costs. Download  
The basic objective of the study was to conduct an environmental economic analysis of the various activities taking place in the Bintuni Bay area. The Ministry of Environment was, at that time, starting to close down non-sustainable logging operations while also promoting the conservation of important natural areas. The analysis…
This paper proceeds as follows:  in the next section we briefly review the experience with the implementation of economic instruments in both OECD countries and developing countries. The types of instruments considered are:  pollution taxes/charges, product taxes/charges, deposit-refund schemes, and tradable permits. Also, the related practices of earmarking revenues from…
I have been asked to prepare a brief paper on the role of property rights in the economic analysis of environmental problems in Southeast Asia. The logical starting point, it would seem, is first to talk about the causal role of property rights in the existence of environmental problems. From…
Energy-economic-environment (EEE) interactions can be expected to play a crucial role in the development process. Energy is a critical resourced underpinning economic growth. Countries in SE Asia have reached different levels of economic welfare, and this is reflected in their energy use patterns. Some of the countries are well endowed…
In this paper I discuss some of the issues that have arisen and some of the lessons learned over the last ten years about administering CV surveys in developing countries. The discussion is organized around five distinct issues:  (1) ethical problems in conducting contingent valuation surveys; (2) explaining what a…
This paper describes the general rationale for marginal opportunity cost (MOC) pricing, illustrating the concept with special reference to municipal water supply. The various elements of MOC for water, namely marginal production or private cost (MPC); marginal user or depletion cost (MUC); and marginal environmental or external cost (MEC) are…
This paper sketches out some of the research issues involved in analyzing environmental tax reform (ETR). It is a very informal paper, which takes the form of a table and several pages of explanatory notes. Its purpose is to provoke discussion about researchable issues that might be addressed by EEPSEA-supported…
Increasing block tariffs (IBTs) have become the tariff structure of choice in developing countries. Multilateral donors, international financial and engineering consultants, and water sector professionals working in developing countries all commonly presume that IBT structures are the most appropriate way to determine water users' monthly bills. Most, if not all…
This manual has been prepared as an aid to researchers in Southeast Asia involved in the economic evaluation of tropical forest land use options. It was developed initially to serve as an aid to Cambodian researchers in the execution of an EEPSEA-financed study of non-timber forest values in Ratanakiri Province,…
The society has limited resources to meet several objectives such as economic growth, poverty alleviation and environmental protection. These objectives compete for resources and may conflict with each other. For example, economic growth may increase environmental degradation and environmental regulation may constrain growth. Therefore, every effort must be made to…
This paper discusses how environmental considerations will affect tax policy in the decades ahead. It argues that in the future, interactions between tax and environmental policy are likely to go well beyond recent discussion of double dividend issues and internalization of environmental externalities via tax policy will be the goal,…
Individuals' time preferences for mortality reductions are measured in six Less Developed Countries in Africa, Eastern Europe, and Asia using the contingent valuation method. The results indicate that individuals' discount factors are much lower than those estimated for a United States sample. Also, respondents' intertemporal preferences for saving lives are…
Papua New Guineas and Australias Great Barrier Reef. This paper calls on researchers to pay greater attention to the "blue" dimension of our global environment, commencing with the coral reef ecosystems. Coral reefs in SE Asia represent about 30% of the worlds reefs. They are currently undergoing unprecedented levels of…
Major rural policies in China before the reform include the state-monopolized procurement and marketing system (SMPMS), collectivization and grain self-sufficiency policy. All these three policies were shaped by heavy-industry-oriented development strategy, adopted in the early 1950s. SMPMS was implemented to provide cheap food and raw materials for urban areas. Collectivization…
The purposes of this paper are to illustrate some practical examples of environmental finance situations; demonstrate that all of these situations could benefit from environmental economics and its insights; and, suggest some specific topics in environmental finance that might be of interest to researchers.   Download
This paper is based on the premises that human health problems related to environmental degradation and resource use are potentially serious in many parts of the developing world and that the scarcity of resources and the opportunity costs of environmental protection make it important for policy makers to consider the…
The objective of the game is to simulate a trading regime to exchange rights to some currently unpriced (or underpriced) environmental or natural resource, and illustrate how trading may lead to an efficient level of pollution (or whatever the good is).   A number of scenarios can be tried to illustrate…
This paper describes work that the OECD Development Centre has undertaken in the past two years to devise and implement a methodology for ancillary benefits estimation in developing countries, using economy-wide models. Section 1 presents a simple analytical framework for integrating ancillary benefits into climate economics. Section 2 then motivates…

Do Households Want Privatized Municipal Water Services? Evidence from Kathmandu Nepal

by Dale Whittington, Subhrendu K. Pattanayak, Jui-Chen Yang, Bal Kumar K.C
Deliver water services?  We seek to contribute to this debate by examining households' demand for the improved water services in Kathmandu, Nepal where the government is considering the possibility of involving the private sector in the operation of municipal water supply services. We surveyed a randomly selected sample of 1500…

Assessing the Impacts of Forest Management on Aboriginal Hunters: Evidence from Stated and Revealed Preference Data

by Wiktor Adamowicz, Peter Boxall, Michel Haener, Yaoqi Zhang, Donna Dosman, Juanita Marois
Assessing the impacts of forest harvesting activities on Aboriginal People and incorporating these considerations into forest management plans is one of the challenges facing Canadian forest managers. In this study we model hunting behavior using stated and revealed preference data on subsistence use of wildlife resources. We use this framework…
The international community has invested billions of dollars to stem the loss of native ecosystems in low-income nations (Hardner and Rice; James et al.).  Despite these investments, the loss continues (Achard et al.; Balmford et al.).  Ecosystems and the services they provide (biodiversity, climate regulation, hydrological regulation, etc.) are public…
This manual has been prepared with support provided by the Economy and Environment Programme for South East Asia (EEPSEA) to enhance the capacity of researchers in carrying out practival applications of BCA using spreadsheet modeling and analysis. The framework and analyses presented are based on core concepts and theory of…

Reliability Of Stated Preferences For Cholera And Typhoid Vaccines With Time To Think In Hue, Vietnam

by Joseph Cook, Dale Whittington, Do Gia Canh, F. Reed Johnson, Andrew Nyamete
We examine the effect of giving respondents time to think about their stated choices (SC) in a survey of cholera and typhoid vaccine preferences in Hue, Vietnam. Because neither vaccine is widely available in Vietnam, we used the SC approach (a stated preference technique) and gave half of our respondents…
This paper deal in varying degrees the need to "price" environmental resources. They also address some of the issues identified in the SOE 2006. Specifically, this paper use economic analysis to examine issues surrounding climate changes, environmental degradation and depletion of natural resources.     Download
This paper focuses on the adaptation strategies of developing countries and the possible adaptation options available for Southeast Asia. Adaptation refers to the actions taken by individuals, communities, or governments in response to climate change, to reduce the adverse impacts or to take adbantage of opportunities offered by such changes.…
This manual on the Economic Valuation of Mangroves has been compiled and developed from a number of sources as an aid to researchers in Southeast Asia involved in the evaluation of mangrove ecosystems. A companion EEPSEA manual 'The Economic Valuation of Alternative Tropical Forest Land Use Options' (Bann, 1997) contains…
Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia