Research Reports

Research reports are final reports from projects of broad interest. Peer reviewed and edited.

This study looked at 12 projects on payment for environmental services (PES) from four countries where it has been applied. Results show that most of the projects have had a positive impact both on the environment and on people’s livelihoods and their awareness of the value of natural resources and…
This study looked at whether existing environmental policies conflict with China’s emissions trading approach and reduce its effectiveness. The study used an agent-based model to assess the SO2 emissions trading market in the Chinese province of Jiangsu.  It was found that four main policies are in conflict with the emissions…
The study aimed to understand the relationships between regional economic development, energy consumption and total carbon emissions in Chinese provinces by analyzing panel data from 1995-2010. Uneven growth across regions was found to contribute significantly to lower carbon dioxide emissions in China during this time period. It was also found…
This study looked at the costs and benefits of producing bioplastics from one of Thailand’s leading crops, cassava. It compares the production of the bioplastic Polylactic acid (PLA) from cassava, with the production of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) from petroleum. It finds that the production of PLA has a net positive…
This study focuses on the economic analysis of flood adaptation options. Three sub-studies were undertaken: a) Direct Damage Cost Estimation for Floods; b) Benefit-Cost Analysis of a Technology-Based Early Warning System, and c) Cost Effectiveness Analysis of Relocation vis-à-vis Evacuation and Building Modification. Results indicate that the typical direct damage…
This study has looked at the costs and benefits of a proposed flood adaptation project in one of the country’s most flood-prone areas, the Xuan Tributary in Thua Thien-Hue province. Results indicate that upgrading the flood defenses and drainage systems along the entire An Xuan tributary would bring a wide…
This study examines the impact of artificial reefs on fisher households’ income in Terengganu, Malaysia. Data obtained from a survey involving 312 respondents in three contiguous districts indicate that respondents fishing near AR areas are found to have a higher monthly catch value as compared to those fishing in non-AR…
This study determined the extent of tourists’ willingness to pay (WTP) for Caramoan beachscape beauty conservation; it will input into the plans for establishing a payment for ecosystem services scheme for the sustainable development of ecotourism and coastal resource management in the area. Results show that half the tourists are…
The study tried to answer how well experiment measures for other-regarding behavior could generalize real behavior or enable it to be called “the external validity”. The results of the three experiments were combined as proxies of other-regarding behavior and actual collective behavior of villagers in coastal conservation activities. The Kok…
This study assessed the climate change vulnerability of households in 12 municipalities in Laguna province. The vulnerability incidence was high for those employed in the commercial and services sector, and for those with agriculture-dependent livelihoods. Female-headed households were also found to have high vulnerability incidence. In terms of frequency and…
This report is an account of a cross-country study that covered  Vietnam, Indonesia and the Philippines. Covering four sites (one  each in Indonesia and Vietnam) and two sites in the Philippines,  the study documented the impacts of three climate hazards  affecting coastal communities, namely typhoon/flooding, coastal  erosion and saltwater intrusion.…
Game theory was used to analyze the extraction behavior of fishermen around the Southern  Sonkhla Lake in Southern Thailand. The field experiments were designed based on the concept of non-cooperative game theory for investigating fishermen’s behavior in response to four management policy  options: external regulations with individual transferable quotas (ITQs)…
This study explored the various factors that influence farmers’ participation in the muang fai irrigation system.  It also compared this tradition with the underground pump irrigation systems. Results show that the muang fai system is better than underground pump irrigation in terms of water conservation and at improving the livelihood…
The study aimed to find out optimal management strategies for productive planted forests when carbon benefits are considered.  Results reveal, compared to the actual rotation age of five year, the optimal rotation age of E. urophylla and A. mangium (when only timber has market value) is 10 and 13 year…
The study aimed to understand how the economic and environmental perceptions of upland farmers in the context of biofuels and natural rubber production regimes in Palawan explain their behavioral intents, especially regarding intensification of production and cooperation in such partnership regimes. Research findings reveal that upland farmers tend to equate…
The transportation sector in China has joined the power generation and the steel and iron  industries as a major CO2emission contributor. To determine which policy instrument(s) would be  effective in reducing CO2emissions, various policy instruments which have been or are likely to be  implemented in the near future in China…
China suffers a variety of natural disasters every year. The frequency and consequences of these  disasters have risen due to climate change, resulting in increased economic losses. This project first examines the existing public system of disaster relief and recovery including both  direct government subsidy and public insurance system through…
The Southern part of Thailand, a region with tropical climate and monsoon, has often been affected  by torrential rains caused by tropical storms, depressions, and typhoons. Such heavy rain is often  accompanied by flash floods – sometimes occuring so suddenly and with an enormous amount of water –  that make…
This study tests the hypothesis that climate change, through its rice productivity impacts, induces  out-migration in the Philippines. Results show that climate change effects such as increasing night time  temperature and extreme rainfall pattern, by way of reduction in rice yield and farm revenues, significantly  increases the number of Overseas…
In terms of value, coffee which is mostly grown on smallholder farms, ranked fourth in the exports  of food and agricultural commodities of Indonesia in 2008. Together with state-owned and private  plantations, they add up to 969,082 ha of area harvested – the second largest in the world. Nevertheless,  Indonesia…
The negative effects of open-field rice straw burning on the environment and human health are  well documented in local and international literature. Farmers have thus been encouraged to refrain from  burning rice straw and adopt more environment- and human-friendly rice straw management practices. This  research project aimed at assessing the…
The excessive growth of water hyacinth is a common environmental problem in tropical regions.  The use of water hyacinth to remove nutrients from bodies of water and to produce biogas is a technically  feasible way of controlling water hyacinth, but its environmental and economic performance are not well  understood. This…
This study was conducted to evaluate the current management regime of burning vis-à-vis burning  with carbon offsets for the Chocolate Hills Natural Monument (CHNM) in Bohol, Philippines. The current  scheme of burning to maintain the grass-covered (tree-less) and brown hills to sustain tourist arrivals is seen  as environmentally unsound and…
This study aims to assess the performance and the short-term impacts of the payment for forest  environmental services (PFES) policy in Lam Dong Province, Vietnam. After a two-year pilot implementation  (2009-2010), the Vietnam government plans to establish a national legal PFES framework. The paper  describes the PFES pilot policy and…
Clean water is essential for human survival. Yet, many people do not have access to clean water in Vietnam. Only around 23% of the population had access to piped water in 2006. This study measures the effect of piped water on household welfare using difference-in-differences estimators and panel data from…
China is experiencing severe complex air pollution and huge greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions as a  result of its booming economy over the last 30 years. In order to control air pollution, multiple pollutants  should be targeted simultaneously. To cope with current international climate change problems, GHG  emissions reduction should be…
The project explored the potentials of a forestry carbon project for an indigenous cultural  community in the Philippines. Specifically, it assessed the global potential of forestry carbon finance;  reviewed the legal and policy environments of forestry carbon projects in the Philippines; and evaluated the  feasibility of a forestry carbon project…
This study is part of the cross-country analysis of the fiscal and resource gap of protected areas (PA) in the South East Asian region. It focused on the protected areas in the Philippines that are under the jurisdiction of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). Results show that…
We conduct a meta-analysis (MA) of around 100 studies valuing nature conservation in Asia and Oceania. Dividing our dataset into two levels of heterogeneity in terms of good characteristics (endangered species vs. nature conservation more generally) and valuation methods, we show that the degree of regularity and conformity with theory…
In Thailand the number of elephants are declining, and many of the remaining animals are protected in a network of wildlife sanctuaries. Unfortunately, elephants from these protected areas are coming into conflict with farmers. This human-elephant conflict (HEC) is causing crop damage. It is also leading to injury and loss…
Vietnam is one of the five countries in the world that will be the most seriously affected by sea level rises as a result of global climate change. This study has looked at how the country should protect itself from this steadily developing challenge. To do this, the study assessed…
In the last two decades Mongolia's vast areas of pastureland have been rapidly degraded and desertified. Although the main cause of this national crises is believed to be climate change, overgrazing and livestock over-population are also major contributing factors. This study has assessed the degradation and the economic value of…
Various empirical studies have confirmed that trade liberalization stimulates economic growth. In order to strengthen economic development and emerge from Least Developed Country (LDC) status by the year 2020, the Government of Lao (GoL) PDR is eager to capitalize on trade liberalization agreements such as the ASEAN Free Trade Area…
Floods are a familiar and frequent feature of life in the Vietnamese Mekong River Delta (MRD). Although floods bring hardship to people, they also bring benefits, such as livelihood development. People in the MRD have experienced the impacts of floods for years, however some adapt well to the floods, while…
This paper focuses on evaluating the reversion of disused Fishpond Lease Agreement areas in Region VI (Western Visayas), Philippines to mangrove forests. The rehabilitation and restoration of mangrove areas are important given the substantial decline of mangrove forests in the country, particularly in Region VI. The study used a two-stage…
The leather tanning sector in Vietnam is currently growing fast and is becoming an increasingly significant cause of environmental pollution. This study has assessed the environmental impact of the tanning industry in the country, the effectiveness of some of the environmental regulations that govern it and the factors that affect…
Sand mining in Cau River in Bac Ninh province, Vietnam has intensified in recent years. Despite the negative impacts of sand mining on the river, local authorities and people have exerted inadequate and ineffective efforts to control the situation as evidenced by the mushrooming of sand mining activities in Cau…
China is currently facing a major air pollution challenge and must make significant reductions in its emissions of conventional air pollutants (AP) and greenhouse gases (GHGs). This is especially the case for the iron and steel sector, which is one of country's biggest polluters. To help find the best way…
In Asia and the Pacific more people are affected by floods, droughts, and storms than in any other part of the world. This problem is set to get worse as the impact of climate change becomes more pronounced and extreme weather events become more frequent. To try and assess how…
Tropical cyclones, induced by climate change, are happening more frequently and cause serious damage almost every year in China. For this reason, it is necessary to improve the ability of government, communities and households to adapt to climate change and tropical cyclones. Typhoon Saomai was the most powerful typhoon ever…
Tropical cyclone is the most commonly occurring natural hazard in the Philippines causing billions of pesos worth in socio-economic losses and other forms of damages. Analysis of 59-year data on Philippine typhoons revealed that their intensity had been increasing, especially since the 1990s. It is therefore important for people, communities,…
Climate change is a modern day concern of serious proportions. Reducing vulnerability to climate change impacts may be viewed either in terms of risk reduction or improvement in adaptive capacity, or both. At the community and household levels, lessening the risk of climate change might be impossible in some instances.…
To address the problem of air pollution in Metro Manila, the study proposes a jeepney buy-back program through which the current fleet of diesel jeepneys would be replaced with zero-emission electric vehicles. Households are made to pay for the program through a surcharge on top of their monthly electricity bill.…
The major objective of this study was to develop appropriate water quality control policies for a sustainable fishery in Southern Songkhla Lake (Southern Lake) so the impact of water pollution on fishery production in the lake was the first consideration. The three major components of this study were: (i) the…
The struggle of village tank farmers in the dry zone of Sri Lanka against rising scarcity of water and land resources strongly highlights the interdependence of local resources under diverse regimes of governance. The significant population in the dry zone that lives under the village tank systems represents one of…
Since the economic reforms that began in 1978, China has experienced a dramatic decline in energy intensity but in 2002 it flattened out and even rose slightly. There have been considerable debates about the origins of this dramatic decline in energy intensity before the year 2000: is this decline mostly…
In developing communities, good governance has become imperative to both responses to the emerging climate change problems and rural development. Getting good governance requires improvements in all dimensions of the public sector, e.g., democratic government, empowerment of the poor, access to market and participatory development. The good governance agenda, largely…
Past experience with the forest management system of Cambodia has shown that the open-access forest scheme has contributed to the decline of timber and non-timber forest products collected from the forests. Authorities have responded by introducing a major program of Community Forestry (CF) in more than 237 CF areas covering…
Climate change and adaptation to its impacts are pressing issues. Great efforts have been made locally to prevent and adapt to climate change events but problems related to climate change are exacerbated in poor communities in developing countries. Understanding local adaptation capacity and responses to climate change events is important…
Shortage in irrigation water has become a serious problem in rural China. Governments are trying to build more Water User Associations (WUAs) to improve the management of irrigation water. Better management would reduce the agricultural use of water and allocate more water to protect the environment, especially in arid and…
Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia