Chiang Mai Province in Thailand has had a long history of flooding since 1956 due to its bowl-like shape. Floods have occured in rising frequency in the last decade, for instance, between 1994 and 1996, five floods hit Chiang Mai and severe floods took place in 2005.
Rawadee Jarungrattanapong from Ritsumeikan Asia Pacific University and Areeya Manasboonphempool from Kasetsart University conducted a study in 2009 on how local government units and individual households had adapted to the Chiang Mai floods of 2005. This study looked at not just the gaps in adaptive behavior, but also examined these in respect of both urban and rural communities. The Chiang Mai Housing Community (CMHC) and Mae Kong Tai (MKT) Village, two of the most impacted areas from the 2005 floods, were selected to represent urban and rural areas, respectively. Two hundred households in CMHC and 108 households in MKT were selected at random. Four government agencies that played a key role in flood response in 2005 were also interviewed.